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EXAMPLES

Examples of protein music based on our final algorithm can be heard and viewed below. With respect to recognizing repeating patterns in the protein music sequences, we show two main examples: the Huntingtin and LacY permease proteins. Huntington's disease is an example of a triplet repeat disorder in which an expansion of a repeated glutamine sequence causes the protein to lose its proper function. Such an expansion leads to a late-onset neurological disorder. The LacY permease protein spans the membrane of Escherichia coli and has a distinct hydrophobic region of phenylalanines. This sequence facilitates the protein to move through the bacterial membrane. In the Huntingtin example, one can hear an obvious repeated pattern of glutamines and polyprolines, and this pattern can be compared to the less obvious repeated pattern of phenylalanines heard in the LacY permease. See Project Evolution for a description of our coding optimization.

It is important to note that our coding assignment can be reversed with respect to tonal assignments as well as rhythm. For example, the lower notes can be assigned to the hydrophilic amino acids rather than the hydrophobic. We show examples of the human ThyA protein using reverse coding below.

Human ThyA    
Original chord and rhythm assignment AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
Reverse scale assignment AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
Reverse rhythm assignment AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
Reverse scale and rhythm assignment AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
     
Pattern Examples    
Huntingtin AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
LacY permease AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3 4
     
Hemoglobin    
Horse AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
Chironomous AUDIO VISUAL 1 2
Glycera AUDIO VISUAL 1 2
     
Cytochrome c    
Carp AUDIO VISUAL 1 2
Human AUDIO VISUAL 1
     
Transcription factors    
c-Jun AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3 4
CTCF AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     
Immunology    
Human FcR of IgA IgM AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3 4
     
Parasites    
Giardia intestinalis Variant Surface Protein (VSP) AUDIO VISUAL 1 2 3
     
Random Sequence AUDIO VISUAL 1 2